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Patent US6285999 - Method for node ranking in a linked database

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Inc.Using concepts for ad targetingWO2005065229A2Dec 21, 2004Jul 21, 2005Google, Inc.Generating user information for use in targeted advertisingWO2005111894A2May 6, 2005Nov 24, 2005Google, Inc.Facilitating the serving of ads having different treatments and/or characteristics, such as text ads and image adsWO2006004800A2Jun 29, 2005Jan 12, 2006Google, Inc.Local area advertissementsWO2006063451A1 *Dec 15, 2005Jun 22, 2006Memoplex Research Inc.Systems and methods for storing, maintaining and providing access to informationWO2006071811A2 *Dec 23, 2005Jul 6, 2006Become, Inc.Method for assigning relative quality scores to a collection of linked documentsWO2006071811A3 *Dec 23, 2005Apr 2, 2009Become IncMethod for assigning relative quality scores to a collection of linked documentsWO2007035499A2Sep 15, 2006Mar 29, 2007Google, Inc.Flexible advertising system which allows advertisers with different value propositions to express such value propositions to the advertising systemWO2007044975A3 *Oct 12, 2006Aug 23, 2007Google IncEntity display priority in a distributed geographic information systemWO2007146951A3 *Jun 12, 2007Oct 30, 2008Zalag CorpMethods and apparatus for searching contentWO2008126184A1 *Mar 16, 2007Oct 23, 2008Fujitsu LimitedDocument degree-of-importance calculating programWO2009032940A1Sep 4, 2008Mar 12, 2009Google Inc.Word decompounderWO2009114672A2Mar 12, 2009Sep 17, 2009Michelli Capital Limited Liability CompanySystems and methods for compound searchingWO2011018245A1Aug 11, 2010Feb 17, 2011Charité-Universitätsmedizin BerlinMethod for scoring items using one or more ontologiesWO2011033457A1Sep 15, 2010Mar 24, 2011Intellisemantic SrlSystem and method for content classificationWO2011152908A1Mar 9, 2011Dec 8, 2011Lockheed Martin CorporationMethods and systems for prioritizing network assetsWO2012001096A2Jun 30, 2011Jan 5, 2012Universiteit AntwerpenMethod and system for using an information systemWO2013045177A1Aug 21, 2012Apr 4, 2013Alcatel LucentUser-enhanced ranking of information objectsWO2014197160A1May 8, 2014Dec 11, 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research ComapnyMethod for decomposing complex objects into simpler components

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Patent US462418 - Nikola tesla

(No Model.)

N. TESLA. I ME'ITHOD OF AND APPARA TUS FOR ELECTRICAL CONVERSION AND I DISTRIBUTION.

' No. 462,418. Patented. NOV. 3, 1891.

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. v Jaye/d01- W MQQ 71.42

. JIM/5 W I mm UNITE STATES PATENT OFFICE.

' NIKOLA TESLA, OF NETV YORK, N. Y.

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR ELECTRICAL CONVERSION AND DISTRIBUTION.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 462,418,- dated November 3, 1891.

Application filed February 4, 1891. Serial No. 380,182. (No model.)

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, NIKOLA TEsLA,-a' subject of the Emperor of Austria, from Smiljan, Lika, border country of Austria-Hungary, residing at New York, in the county and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Methods of and Apparatus for Electrical Conversionand Distribution, of which the 'followingis a specification, reference being had to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the same.

This invention is an improvementin methods of and apparatus for electrical conversion, designed for the better and more economical distribution and application of electrical energy for general useful purposes.

Myinvention is based on certain electrical phenomena which have been observed by eminent scientists and recognized as due to laws which have been in a measure demonstrated, but which,so far'as I am aware,have not hitherto been utilized on applied with any practically useful results. Stated briefly, these phenomena are as follows: First, if a condenser or conductor possessing capacity he charged from a suitable, generator and discharged through a, circuit, the discharge under certain conditions will be of an intermittent or oscillatory character; second, if

two points in an electric circuit through which a current rapidly rising and falling in strength is made to flow be connected with the plates or armatures of a condenseiy'a variation in the currents strength in the entire circuit or in a portion of the same only may be produced; third, the amount or character of such variation in the currents strength is dependent upon the condenser capacity, the

self-induction and resistance of the circuit or 1 its sections, and the period or time rate of change of the current. It may be observed, however, that these several factorsthe capacity, the self-induction, resistance, and period-are all relatedin a manner well understood by electricians; butto render such conversion as may be effected by condensers practically available and useful it is desirable, chiefly on accountof the increased output and efliciency and reduced cost of the apparatus, to produce current-impulses succeeding each other with very great rapidity,

or, in other words, to render the duration of each impulse, alternation, or oscillation of the current extremely small. To the many difliculties in the way of efiecting this mechanically, as by means of rotating switches or'interrupters, is perhaps due the failure to realize practically, at least to any marked degree, the advantages of which such a system is capable. To obviate these difficulties, I have in my present invention taken advantage of the fact above referred to, and which has been long recognized, that if a condenser or a conductor possessing capacity be charged from asuitable source and be discharged through a circuit the discharge under certain conditions, dependent on the capacity of the eondeuser or conductor, the selfinduction and resistance of the discharging circuit, and the rate of supply and decay of the electrical energy, may be eifccted intermittently or in the form of oscillations of extremely small period.

Briefly stated in general terms, the plan which I pursue in carrying out my invention is as follows:

I employ a generator, preferably, of very high tension and capable of yielding either direct or alternatingcurrents. This generator I connect up with a condenser or conductor of some capacity and discharge the accumulated electrical energy disruptively through an air-space or otherwise into a working circuit containing translating devices and, when required, condensers. These discharges may be of the same direction or alternating and intermittent, succeeding each other more or less rapidly or oscillating to and fro with extreme rapidity. In the working circuit, by reason of the condenser action, the current impulses or discharges of high tension and small volume are converted into currents of lower tension and greater volume. The production and application of a current of such rapid oscillations or alternations (the number maybe many millions per second) secures, among others, the following exceptional advantages: First, the capacity of the condensore for a given output is much diminished; second, the elliciency of the condensers is increased and the tendency to become heated reduced, and, third, the range of conversion is enlarged. I have thus succeeded in producing a system or method of conversion ICO radically different from what has been done heretoforcfirst, with respect to the number of impulses,alternations. or oscillations of cu rrent per unit of time, and, second, with respect to the manner in which the impulses are obtained. To express this result, I define the working current as one of an excessively small period or of an excessivelylarge nu mberot impulses or alternations or oscillations per unit of time, by which I mean not a thousand or even twenty or thirty thousand per second, but

. manytimes that number, and one which is made intermittent, alternating, or oscillating of itself without the employment of mechanical devices.

i now proceed to an explanation somewhat more in detail of the nature of my invention, referring to the accompanying drawings.

The two figures are diagrams, each representing a generating-circuit, a working .circuit, means for producing an intermittent or oscillating discha ge, and condensers arranged or combined as contemplated by my invention.

in Figu re 1, A represents a generator of high tension; E B, the conductors which lead out from the same. To these conductors are connected the conductors C of a working circuit containing translating devices, such as incandescentlamps or motors G. In one or both conductors B is a break D, thetwo ends be ing separated by an air-space or a film of insulation, through which a disruptive discharge takes place. F is a condenser, the plates of which are connected to the generating-oi rcuit. if this circuit possess itself sufficient capacity, the condenser F may be dispensed with.

In Fig. 2 the generating-circuit B B contains a condenser F and discharges through the air-gaps D into the working circuit C, to any two points of which is connected a condenser E. The condenser E is-used to modify the currentin any part of the working circuit, such as L.

It may conduceto a better understanding of the invention to consider more in detail the conditions existing'in such asystem as is illustrated in Fig. 1. Let it be assumed, therefore, that in the system there shown the rate of supply of the electrical energy, the capacity, self-ind uction, and the resistance of the circuits are so related that a. disruptive,

' intermittent, or oscillating discharge occurs at D. Assume that the first-named takes place. This will evidently occur when the rate of supply from the generator is'not adequate to the capacity of the generator, conductors B B, and condenser F. Each time the condenser F is charged to such an extent that the potential or accumulated charge overcomes the'dielectric strength of the insulating-space at D the condenser is discharged. It is thenrecharged from the generator A, and this process is repeated in more or less rapid succession. The discharges will follow each other the more rapidly the more nearly the rateof supply from the generator equals the rate at which the circuit including the generator is capable of taking up and getting rid of the energy. Since the resistance and selfinduction of the working circuit C and the rapidity of the successive discharges may be varied at will, the current strength in the working and generating circuit may bear to one another any desired relation.

To understand the action of the local condenser E in Fig. 2, let a single discharge be first considered. This discharge has two paths offered-one to the condenser E, the other through the part L of the working c rcuit C. The part L, however, byvirtue of its self-ind notion, ofiers a strong opposition to such a sudden discharge, while the condenser, on the other hand, olters no such opposition. The result is that practically no current passes at first through the branch I, but presumably opposite electricities rush to the condenser-coatings, this storing for the moment electrical ener'gyin the condenser. Time -is gained bythis means, and the condenser then discharges through the branch L, this process being repeated for each discharge occurring at D. The amount of electrical energy stored in the condenser at each; charge is dependent upon the capacity of the com denser and the potential of its plates. it is evident, therefore, that the quicker the discharges succeed each other the smaller for a given output need be the capacity of the .condenser and the greater is also the efiiciency of the condenser. This is confirmed by practical results.

The discharges occurring at I), as stated, may be of the same direction or may be alternating, and in the former case the devices contained in the working circuitmaybe traversed by currents of the same or alternatelyopposite direction. It may be observed, however, that each intermittent discharge occurring at D may consist of a number of oscillations in the working circuit or branch L. l A periodically-oscillating discharge will occur at D in Fig. 1 when the quantities concerned bear a certain relation expressed in wellknown formulae and ascertained by simple experiment. In this case it is demonstrated in theory and practice that the ratio .of the strength of the current in the working to that in the generating circuits is the greater the greater the self-induction, and the smaller the resistance of the working circuit the smaller the period of oscillation.

I do notlimit myself to the use of any specific forms of the apparatus described in connection with this invention norto the precise arrangement of the system with respect to its details herein shown. in the drawings return-Wires are shown in the circuit; but it will be understood that in any case the ground may be conveniently used in lieu of the re turn-wire.

' What I claim is- 1. The method of electrical conversion herein described, which consists in charging acou- IIO denser or conductor possessing capacity and maintaining a succession of intermittent or oscillating disruptive discharges of said conductor into a working circuit containing translating devices. 'jf

In a system of electrical conversion, the combination of a generator or source of electricity and a. line or generating circuit containing a condenser or possessing capacity, and a working circuit ope'ratively connected with the generating-circuit through one or the working circuit will be maintained, as set forth.

NIKOLA TESLA,

Witnesses:

ROBT. F. GAYLORD PARKER W. PAGE.

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Patent US381970 - Nikola tesla

(No man. v I 2 sheets-$11M 1Q] N. TESLA.

SYSTEM OF BLEGT ICAL DISTRIBUTION.

No. 381,970. A PatentedMay 1, 1888'.

day-1.

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Y r ATTORNEYJ'.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

NIKOLA TESLA, OF NEIV YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR OF ONE-HALF TO CHARLES F. PEOK, OF ENGLEWOOD, NEW JERSEY.

SYSTEM OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 381,970, dated May 1, 1888.

Application filed December 23, 1887. Serial No. 258,787. (No model.)

To all whom, it may concern.-

Be it known that I, NIKOLA TEsLA, from Smiljan Lika, border country of Austria-Hungary,now residing at New York,in the county and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Systems of Electrical Distribution, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the same.

This invention relates to those systems of electrical distribution in which a current from a single source of supply in a main or transniitting circuit is caused to induce by means of suitable induction apparatus a current or currents in an independent working circuit or circuits.

The main objects of the invention are the same as have been heretofore obtained by the use of these systems-viz., to divide the'current from a single source,whereby a number of lamps, motors, or other translating devices may be independently controlled and operated by the same source of current, and in some cases to-reduce a current of high potential in the main circuit to one of greater quantity and lower potential in the independent consumption or working circuit or circuits.

The general character of the devices employed in these systems is now well understood. An alternating-current magneto-machineis used as the source of supply. The current developed thereby is conducted through a transmission-circuit to one or more distant points at which the transformers are located. These consist of induction-machines of various kinds. In some cases ordinary forms of induction-coil have been used with one coil in the transmitting-circuit and the other in a local or consumption circuit, the coils being differ ently proportioned according to the work to be done in the consumption-circuit that is to say, if the work requires a current of higher potential than that in the transmission circuit the secondary or induced coil is of greater length and resistance than the primary,while, on the other hand, if a quantity current of lower potential is wanted the longer coil is made the primary. In lieu of these devices various forms of electro-dynamic induction- 5o machines, including the combined motors and I generators, have been devised. For instance, a motor is constructed in accordance with wellunderstood principles, and on the same armature are wound induced coils which constitute a generator. The motor-coils are generally of fine wire and the generator-coils of coarser wire, so as to produce a current of greater quantity and lower potential than the line-current, which is of relatively high potential, to 6cavoid loss in long transmission. A. similar arrangement is to wind coils corresponding to those described in a ring or similar core, and by means of a commutator of suitable kind to direct the current through the inducing-coils successively, so as to maintain a movement of the poles of the core and of the lines of force which set up the currents in the induced coils.

WVithout enumeratingthe objections to these systems in detail, it will suffice to say that the theory or the principle of the action or operation of these devices has apparently been so little understood that their proper construction and use have up to the present time been attended with various difficulties and great expense. The transformers are very liable to be injured and burned out, and the means resorted to for curing this and other defects have almost invariably been at the expense of efficiency.

The form of converter or transformer which I have devised appears to be largely free from the defects and objections to which I have alluded. While I do not herein advance any theory as to its mode of operation, I would 85 state that, in so far as the principal of construction is concerned, it is analogous to those transformers which I have above described as electro dynamic induction machines, except that it involves no moving parts whatever,and c is hence not liable to wear or other derange ment, and requires no more attention than the other and more common induction-machines.

In carrying out my invention I provide a series of inducing-coils and corresponding in- 5 duced coils,which, by preference, I wind upon a core closed upon itself-such as an annulus or ring subdivided in the usual manner. The

two sets of coils are wound side by side orsuperposed or otherwise placed in well-known ways to bring them into the most effective relations to one another and to the core. The

inducing or primary coils wound on the core are divided into pairs or sets by the proper electrical connections, so that while the coils of one pair or set to co-operate in fixing the mag nctic poles of the core at two given diametrically-opposite points, the coils of the other pair or setassuming, for sake of illustration, that there are but t\votend to fix the poles ninety degrees from such points. \Vith this induction device I use an alternating-eurrent generator with coils or sets of coils to correspond with those of the converter, and by means of suitable conductors I connect up in independent circuits the corresponding coils of the generator and converter. It results from this that the different electrical phases in the generator are attended by corresponding magnetic changes in the converter; or, in other words, that as the generatorcoils revolve the points of greatest magnetic intensity in the converter will be progressively shifted or whirled around. This principle I have applied under variously-moditied conditions to the operation of electromagnetic motors, and in previous applications, notably in those having Serial Nos. 252,182 and 256,561,I have described in detail the manner of constructing and using such motors. In the present application my object is to describe the best and most convenient manner of which I am at present aware of carrying out the invention as applied to a system of electrical distribution; but one skilled in the art will readily understand from the description by the modifications proposed in said applications, wherein the form of both the generator and converter in the present case may be modified.

In illustration therefore of the details of construction which my present invention involves, I now refer to the accompanying drawlugs.

Figure 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the converter and the electrical connections of the same. Fig. 2 is a horizontal central crossscction of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a diagram of the circuits of the entire system, the generator being shown in section.

[use a core, A, which is closed upon itselfthat is to say, of an annular cylindrical or equivalent form--and as the eflicicncy of the apparatus is largely increased by the subdi vision of this core I make it of thin strips, plates, or wires of soft iron electrically insulated as far as practicable. Upon this core, by any well known method, I wind, say, four coils, B B B B, which I use as primary coils, and for which I use long lengths of comparatively fine wire. Over these coils I then wind shorter coils of coarser wire, 0 C O O, to con stitute the induced or secondary coils. The construction of this or any equivalent form of converter may be carried further, as above pointed out, by inclosing these coils with ironas, for example, by winding over the coils a layer or layers of insulated iron wire.

The device is provided with suitable binding-posts, to which the ends of the coils are led. The diametrically-opposite coils B B and B B are connected, respectively, in series, and the four terminals are connected to the hinding-posts 1 2 3 4-. The induced coils are connected together in any desired manner. For example, as shown in Fig. 3, G C may be con nected in multiple are when a quantity current is desired-as for running a group of incandescent lamps, D-whilc G 0 may be independently connected in series in a circuit including arc lamps or the like. The generator in this system will be adapted to the converter in the manner illustrated. For example, in the present case I employ a pair of ordinary permanent or clectro magnets, E E, between which is mounted a cylindrical arma ture on a shaft, F, and wound with two coils, G G. The terminals of these coils are con nected, respectively. to four insulated contact or collecting rings, H H H II, and the four line circuit-wires L connect the brushes K, bearing on these rings, to the converter in the order shown. Noting the results of this combination, it will be observed that at a given point of time the coil G is in its neutral positionandisgeneratinglittle or no current,while the other coil, G, is in a position where it exerts its maximum effect. Assuming coil G to be connected in circuit with coils B B of the converter, and coil G with cells B B, it is evident that the poles of the ring A will be determined by coils B B alone; but as the armature of the generator revolves, coil G dedelops more current and coil G less, until G reaches its maximum and G its neutral position. The obvious result will be to shift the poles of the ring A through one-quarter of its periphery. The movement of the coils through the next quarter of a turn, during which coil G cnters a field of opposite p0 larity and generates a current of opposite direction and increasing strength, while coil G, in passing from its maximum to its neutral position generates a current of decreasing strength and same direction as before, causes a further shifting of the poles through the second quarter of the ring. The second half-revolution will obviously be a repetition of the same action. By the shifting of the poles of the ring A a powerful dynamic inductive effect on the coils G G is produced. Besides the currents generated in the secondary coils by dynamo'inagneticinduction other currents will be set up in the same coils in consequence of any variations in the intensity of the poles in the ring A. This should be avoided by maintaining the intensity of the poles con stant, to accomplish which care should be taken in designing and proportioning the generator and in distributing the coils in the ring A and balancing their effect. iVhen this is done, the currents are produced by dynamomagnetic induction only, the same result being obtained as though the poles were shifted by a commutator with an infinite number of segments.

The modifications which are applicable to other forms of converter are in many respects applicable to this. I refer more particularly to the form of the core, the relative lengths and resistances of the primary and secondary coils, and the arrangements for running or 0pjeratingthe same.

The new method of electrical conversion which this system involves I have made the subject of another application, and I do not claim it therefore herein.

Without limiting myself therefore to any specific form, what I claim is- 1. The combination, with a core closed upon itself, inducing or primary coils wound thereon and connected up in independent pairs or sets, and induced or secondary coils wound upon or near the primary coils, of a generator of alternating currents and independent connections to the primary coils, whereby by the operation of the generator a progressive shifting of the poles of the core is effected, as set forth 2. Thecombination,withan annularorsimilar magnetic core and primary and secondary coils wound thereon, of'an alternating-current generator having induced or armature coils corresponding to the primary coils, and independent circuits connecting the primary coils with the corresponding coils of the generator, as herein set forth.

3. The combination, with independent electric transmission-circuits, of transformers consisting of annular or similar cores wound with primary and secondary coils, the opposite primary coils of each transformer being connected to one of the transmission-circuits, an alternating-current generator with independent induced or armature coils connected with the NIKOLA TESLA.

Witnesses:

ROBT. H. DUNCAN, RoB'r. F. GAYLORD.

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Patent US447920 - Nikola tesla

No. 447,920. Patented Mar. 10, 1891.

TH: wams Farias co., mormumo., wnsnmsrou, u. c.

UNITED STATES PATENT OEEICE.

NIKOLA TESLA, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.

METHOD OF OPERATING ARC LAMPS.

SPECIFICATION forming part Of Letters Patent No. 447,920, dated March l0, 1891.

Application filed October l, 1890.

To all whom, it may concern:

Be it known that I, NIKOLA TEsLA, a subject of the Emperor of Austria-Hungary, residing at New York, in the county and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Methods of Operating Arc Lamps, ot' which the following is a speciiication.

This invention consists in an improved method of operating electric-arc lamps which are supplied with alternating or pulsating currents.

It has now become a common practice to run are lamps by alternating or pulsating as distinguished from continuous currents; but an objection to such systems exists in the fact that the arcs emit a pronounced sound, varying with the rate of the alternations or pulsations of current, but under anycircumstances constituting an objectionable and disagreeable feature, for which heretofore no effective remedy has been found or proposed. This noise is probably due to the rapidly altern ating heating and cooling and consequent expansion and contraction of the gaseous matter forming the are which corresponds with the periods or impulses of the current, for I have succeeded in abating it and producing quiet and smoothly-acting lamps by increasing, per unit of time, the number of alternations or pulsations of the current producing the arc to such an extent that the rate of the vibrations or changes in the arc producing the noise approximately equals or exceeds that which is generally regarded as the limit of audition. For example, I may use a generator which produces ten thousand or more alternations of current per second. In such a case the periodical heating and cooling of the are would occur with such rapidity as to produce little or no perceptible effect upon the ear.

There are a number ot' ways in which the current may be varied at a rate exceeding the limit of audition, but probably the most practicable known to me at present is by the use of an alternating-current generator with a large number of poles, and specially const rueted for the purpose. Such a generator, for the purpose of the illustration of this case, I have shown in the accompanying drawings.

Figure l is a view of the generator in side elevation. Fig.Y 2 is a vertical cross-section Serial No. 366,734. (No model.)

ot' the same with a diagram ot' the circuit-connections. Fig. 3 is an enlarged view, in side elevation, of a part ot the machine. Fig. a is an enlarged sectional detail of the armature and field. Fig. 5 is a detail section of the ieldmagnets exhibiting the plan of winding.

A is an annular magnetic frame supported by the cross-bars or brackets B, provided with feet O, upon which the machine rests. The interior ot the annulus A is provided with a large number of projections orpole-pieces I). These may be formed or applied in a variety of ways-as, for example, by milling transverse grooves E.

Owing to the very large number and small size of the poles and the spaces between them, I apply the exciting or held coils by winding an insulated conductor F zigzag through the grooves, as shown in Fig. 5, carrying said wire around the annulus to form as many layers as is desired. In this way the pole-pieces D will be energized with alternately opposite polarity around the entire ring.

For the armature I employ a spider or circular frame G on a driving-shattll, mounted in bearings in the brackets B. This spider carries a ring J, turned down, except at its edges, to form a trough-like receptacle for a mass of tine annealed iron wires K, which are wound in the groove to form the core proper for the armature-coils. Pins L are set in the sides of the ringJ and the coils Mare wound over the periphery of the armature-structure and around the pins. The coils M are connected together in series, and these terminals N carried through the hollow shaft II to con* tact-rings P P, from whence the currents are taken ott by brushes O. In this way a machine with a very large number of poles may be constructed. It is easy, for instance, to obtain in this manner three hundred and seventy-tive to tour hundred poles in a machine that may be safely driven at a speed of iifteen hundred or sixteen hundred revolutions per minute, which will produce ten thousand or eleven thousand alter-nations of current per second. Arc lamps R R are shown in diagram as connected up in series with the machine in Fig. 2. It sucha current be applied to running are lamps, the sound produced by or in the arc becomes practically inaudible, for byincreasing the rate ofh-ange IOC in the current, and consequently the number of vibrations per unit of time of the gaseous material of the arc up to or beyond ten thousand or eleven thousand per second, or to what is regarded as the limit of audition, the sound due to such vibrations will not be audible. The exact number of changes or undulations necessary to produce this result will vary somewhat according to the size of the arc-that is to say, the smaller the are the greater the number of changes that will be required to render it inaudible Within certain limits. Of course, as the rate ot' alternations or undulations for a given size of arc becomes very high the sound produced is less perceptible, and hence for some purposes the actual limit of audition may only be approached, provided the sound be rendered practically inaudible.

Another advantage gained by increasing as above set forth the number of alternations is that the arc acts more like that produced by a continuous current, in that it is more persistent, owing to the fact that the time interval between undulations is so small that the gaseous matter cannot cool down so far as to increase very considerablyin resistance.

I claim- The method of abating or rendering inau-

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Patent US512340 - Nikola tesla

(No Model.)

N. TESLA. GOIL FOR ELECTRO MAGNETS.

No.. 512,340. Patented Jen. 9,1894.

aumento/6 UNITED STATES .PATENT OFFICE.

NIKOLA TELA, 0F NEW YORK, N. Y.

COIL FOR ELECTRO-MAGNETS.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 512,340, dated January 9, 1894. Application filed July 7.1893. Serial No. 479.804. (No model.)

To all whom it may concern.-

Beit known that I, NIKOLA TESLA, a`citizen of the United States, residing at New York, in the county and State of New York, have invented certain new and usefullmprovements in Coils for Electro-Magnets and other Apparatus, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the same.

In electric apparatus or systems in which alternating currents are employed the selfinduction of the coils or conductors may, and, in fact, in many cases does operate disadvantageously by giving rise to false currents which often reduce what is known as the commercial eciency of the apparatus'composing the system or operate detrimentally in other respects. The effects of self-induction, above referred to, are known to be neutralized by proportioning to a proper degree the capacity of the circuit with relation to the self-inducv tion and frequency of the currents. This has been accomplished heretofore bythe use of condensers constructed and applied as separate instruments.

M present invention has for its object to avoi the employment of condensers which are expensive, cumbersome and dithcult to maintain in perfect condition, and to so construct the coils themselves as to accomplish the same ultimate object.

I would here state that by the terni coils I desire to include generally helices, solenoids, or, in fact, any conductor the diierent parts of which by the requirements of its application or use are brought into such relations with each otheras to materially increase the self-induction.

l have found that in every coil there exists a certain relation between its self-induction and capacity that permits a current of given frequency and potential to pass through it with no other opposition than that of ohmic resistance, or, in other words, as though itpossessed no self-induction. This is due to the mutual relations existing between the special character of the current and the self-induction and capacity of the coil, the latter quantity being just capable of neutralizing the self-induction for that frequency. It is wellknown that the higher the frequency or potential diierence of the current the smaller the capacity required to counteract the selfinduction; hence, in any coil, however small the capacity', it may be sufficient for the purpose stated if the proper conditions in other respects be secured. In the ordinary coils the difference of potential between adjacent turns ror spires is ,very small, so that while they are in a sense condensers, they possess but very small capacity and the relations between the two quantities, self-induction and capacity, are not such as under any ordinary conditions satisfy the requirements herein contemplated, because the capacity relatively to the self-induction is very small.

In order to attain my object and ,to properly increase the capacity of any given coil, I wind it in such way as to secure a greater difference of potential between its adjacent turns or convoiutions, and since the energy stored in the coil-considering the' latter as a condenser, is proportionate to the square of the potential difference between its adjacent convolutions, it is evident that I mayin this way secure by a proper disposition of these convolutions a greatly increased capacity for a given increase in potential dilerence'between the turns. V

I have illustrated diagrammatically in the accompanying drawings the general nature of the plan which I adopt for carrying out this invention.

`Figure l is a diagram of a coil wound in the ordinary manner. Fig. 2 is a diagram of a winding designed to secure the objects of my invention.

Let A, Fig. 1, designate any given coil the spires or convolutions of which arewound upon and insulated from each other. Let it be assumed that the terminals of this coil show a potential difference of one hundred volts, and that there are one thousand convolutions; their considering any two contiguous points on adjacent convolutions let it be assumed that there will exist between them 'a p ptential difference of one-tenth of a volt. If now, as shown in Fig. 2, a conductor B be wound parallel with the conductor A and insulated from it, and the end of A be connected with the starting point of B, the aggregate length of the two conductors being such that the assumed number of convolutions or turns is the same, viz., one thousand, then the po- IOO tential diterencebetween any two adjacent lpoints in Aand B will be fifty volts, and as the capacity effect is proportionate to the square of this difference, the energy stored 5 in the coil asja whole-will now be two hunred and fifty thousand as' 'greatl' Following out this principle, I may wind any'given coil either in Whole or in part, not only in the specic manner herein` illustrated, but 1o in a great variety of ways,well known `in the art, so as to secure between adjacent convolutions such potential dicrence as .will give the proper capacity to neutralize the self-induction for any given current that may be r 5, employed. Capacity secured in this particular way possesses an additional advantage in that it is evenly distributed, a consideration of the greatest importance in many cases, and the results, both as to-eiiiciency and economy, zo are the more readily and easily obtained as the size of the coils, the potential difference,

6r frequency of t'ne currents are increased.

Coils composed of independent strands or l conductors wound side byside and connected 25l in series' are not in themselves new, and I do not regard a more detailed description ofthe same as necessary. l3nt heretofore, so far as I am aware, the objects in view have been essentially diterent from mine, and the results which I obtain even if an incident to such 3o forms of winding have not been appreciated or taken advantage of.

In carrying outmy invention it is to be observed that certain facts are well under-- stood by those skilled in the art, viz: the re lations ot' capacity, self-induction, and the frequency and potential dierence of the current.- What capacity, therefore, in any given case it is desirable to obtain and what special winding will secure it, are readily determinable from the other factors which are known.

What I claim as my invention isn l. A coil for electric apparatus the adjaent convolutions o'f which form parts of the circuit between which there exists a potential difference sufficient to secure in the coil a capacity capable ot neutralizing its self-induction, as hereinbefore described.

2. A coil composed'of contiguous or adjacent insulated conductors electrically con; nected in seriesand having a potential ditference of such value as to give to the coil as a whole, a capacity sufficient to neutralize its self-induction, as set forth.

NIKOLA TESLA.

` Witnesses: v

ROBT. F. GAYLORD, PARKER W. PAGE.

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Patent US390721 - Best available cop

BEsT AVAILABLE 001 N. TESLA. v DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE.

(No Model.)

PatentedOct. 9, 1888.

HWENTOH WITNESSES:

*H ATTORNEYS.

fss

BESTAVAlLABLE COP NIKOL'A' TESLh, OF NEW YORK, N.. vin,

. COMPANY, OF

PATENT OFFICE.

ssslono'n re THE TESLA ELECTRIC SAME Prison.

DYNAMOv'E LECTRlC M'Acmue,

sPB'omcA-morz forming part orls'etters Patent No. 390,721, datedocto'ber s, 1888.

- Applicatioi: flied sin-n ss'isa.

To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, Nnto'LA TFSLA, a subject of theEmperor'of Austria, fromfimiljan,

Like, border country ofAnstria-Hungary, new residing at NewjYork, in the county and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electric-Generators, of which the followingis a specification, reference being had to thedrawing accompanying and forming-a; part of the same;

My present invention relates, chiefly, to the alternating-current system invented by me' and described in prior patents, notably Nos."

381,968 and 382,280, of May.1, 1888, in which the mot'crs'ortransformers', or generally the converters, are operated by a progressive shift:

ing or movement of their magnetic poles pro-1 d'nced by the co-operative action of independent magnetizing-coils through which pass alternatiug currents in proper order and direction. In my saidsystem, as I have heretofore shown, I'eiuployed a'generator of alternating currents in which there were independent induced or generating coils corresponding to the energizing-coilsof the converter, and the relations. of the generator andconverters were geuerally'snch that the speed of rotation of the magnetic poles of the converter equaled that of the armature ot the generator.

To secure the greatestlefiiciency, it is neccssary to run the "machines at a high speed, and Y this is true notonly of those generators and motors which are particularly adapted for use in my systein, but of others. The practicability of running at ,very high speeds, however, particularly in the case of large generators, is limited by mechanical conditions, in.- seeking to avoid which I have devised various plans for operating the system under efficienteondition's, although running the generatornt a comparatively low rate of speed.

My present invention consists of another way of accomplishing this result, which in certain respects presents many advantages. According to the invention, in lieu of drivin the armature of the generator at a high rate of speed, I, produce a rotation of the magnetic polcsof one element of the generatorand drive the other at. a different speed, by which simi- 5o lar results are obtained to those secured by a rapid rotation of oueof the elements.

with independent-coils or sets otcoils .T J, included, respectively, in the circuits M M. I .These energizing-coils are wound on a ring or annular field or on pole-pieces thereon, and

sauna. 2121,53. momma.)

for operating the motors or transformers cousists in this instance of a subdivided ring or annular core wound with four diametricallyoppositecoils, EE'. Within the ringis mounted a cylindrical armature-core wound longitudinally with. two independent coils, F F, the ends of which lead, respectively, to two pairsot insulated contact or collecting rings, D D' G G, on the armature-shaft.- Collecting-brushes d d g g bear. upon these rings, respectively, and convey the currents through the two independent line-circuits M M. In the mainline there may be included one or more motors or transformers, or both. If motors he used, they are constructed in accordance with my invention produce by the action of i the alternating currents passing through them aprogressive shifting of the magnetism from pole to pole. The cylindrical armature H of the motor is wound with two coils. at right angles, which form independent closed circuits.

1f transformers be employed, 1 connect one set of the-primary coils, as N N, wound on a ring or annular core, to one circuit, as M, and the other-primary-coils, N N, to the circuit M. The secondary coils K K may then be utilized 'for running groups of incandescent lamps P P. 7

With the generator I employ an exciter. This consists of two'poles, A A, of steel permanently magnetized, or of iron excited by a battery orother generator of continuous eurrents,andacylindricalarmatnre-core mounted a on ashaft, B, and'wonud with two lougitndi-p nal coils,C C. One end of each of three coils is connected to the collecting-rings b c, respect ively,while the other ends are both connected to aring, a. Collecting-brushes b c bear on the rings b 0; respectively, and conductors L L convey the currents therefrom through the coils E and E of the generator. L is a common return-wire to brush a. Two independ. ent circuits are thus formed, one iuclndin coils Got the exciter and E E of the generator,

BEST AVAILABLE COP the other coils C of the exciter and E E of the generator. It results from this that the operntionof the exciter producesa progressive movementio'f the magnetic-poles of the annular field-core of the generator, the shifting or rotary movement of said poles being synchronous with the'rotation of the'exciter-arma-- ture. Considering the operative conditionsof a system thus established, it will be'fou'nd that m when-the exciter is driven sons to energize the field of the generator the armature of the latte'ryifleft free to turn, would rotate at a speed practically the same as that of the ex citer. If under such conditions thecoils F- Fo'f the generator-armature be closed upon themseites or short-circuited, no currents-at least theoretically, will be generated in. the said armature-coils. In practice I have observed the presence of slight currents, the existence of which is attributableto'more or less pronounced fluctuations in the intensity of the magnetic poles of the generator-ring. so, it.

the armature-coils FF be plosed'through the motor, the latter will nhtbe turned as lon'gas the movement ofthe generator-armature is magnetic poles of its fleld If, on; the contra 1'y, the speed of the generator-armature be in any way chccked,so thattheshil'ting errotat-ion ol' the poles of the field becomes relatively more rapid, currents will be induced in the armature-colls. This obviously. follows from the pass-ingot the lines of i'orce across the nrmature-conductor s.- The greater; the

tively tothat of the armature the morerapidly the currents developed. in the'coils of the latter will' follow one another, and the more rapidly the motor will revolve. in response thereto, and this continues until the armaturegenerator is stopped entirely, when the motor, if properly constructed, runs at the same'speed with which the magnetic poles of the generator rotatei,

' The effective strength of the currents developed iu-the armature-coilsofi', the generator is dependent upon the strength of the currents energizing-the generator and upon the number of rotations, per unit of time of ,the mag-J netic poles of the generator; hence the speed of the motor-armature will depend in all'cases upon the relative speeds of thearmatni'e of the generator and of its'maguetic poles. .7 For example, if the poles are turned twb thousand times per uuitof time and the armature is turned eight hundred-,th motor will" turn twelve hundred times, or nearly so. Very slight difi'ercnccs of speed may be indicated by a. delicately-balanced motor.-

Let it now be assumed that power is applied to the generator-armature to turn it in a direction opposite to that in which its magnetic poles rotate. In such case the result would be similar to that produced by a generator the armature and field-magnets of which are rototed in opposite directions, and by reasonof these conditions the motor-armature will turn by checking the speed-of synchronous with that of the'exclter'or ofthe magnetic poles or conversely. It will-be understood from the above despecd 0f=rotation of the magnetic poles rela-' as by a bmke,--

operatively associatedi'in the following man- 'ata rate :of speed equal tothe sum or the speeds of the armature and magnetic poles of the generator, so that a comparatively low speed of the generator-armature will produce a high speed in the motor. 7

It will-be observed'in connection with this system that ondiminishing the resistance of the'external-circnit of the nerator-armatu re e motor or by addmultiple arc' in the iug translating devices in l sewndarycircuit orcircnits of the transformer I 'thestren'gth of the current in the armaturecircuit is greatly increased. Thisis due to the causes: first,to the great differences in the speeds of themotor andgenerator, and, secondly, to the fact that the apparatus follows the. analogy of'a transformer, for, inproportion as the resistance of the armature orsecon'dary mane is reduced; the strength oi the currents in the field-or primary circuits-of the generator is increased and the-currents in the armature augmented correspondingly. For, similar reasons the'currents in the armatureo coils of the-generator increase very rapidly a .when the speed of the armature isreduoed;

when running in the same 'directicnasthe 93. scriptlon that the generator-armature may be run in the direction ofthe shifting of the magneticpoles, but more rapidly, and thatin such case thespeed of the 'motor'willbe equal to the difierence between'the two rates.

In manyapplications'to'electricalconversion 4 and distribution this system possesses great advantages both in economy, efficiency, and, practice 'ility. v

v1 What lclaim is- I 1. The combination, withan alternating-cub rent generator having independent energizing or field and independent indn For armature coils, of an alternating-current exciton having generatihg or inducedcoi s correficit spending to and connected with the en gizing coils of the generator, as set forth.

A 2. Jinan alternating-current generator, the. combination of the elements named and eoner: ;a field-magnet wound with independent ing currents, whereby the magnetic poles produced by said coils 'will be "progressively shiftedor .moved through the field, and an armature-core; wound with independent coils,' I each "having.v terminals from i which currents aretgeliver'ed to the independent external cir-- cu: r

'3, The system of electrical distribution consisting of the combination, -with an alternat- 'ing cnrrent generatnnnhaying independent energizing-coilsandgrgrmature won lid with independentinduced c "is aqnalternatingcurrent ex'cite'r having induced corre sponding to and connected with the sum ing coils of the generator, and one or more e1 rical converters having independent inducing or energizing coils connected withthe corre-- log t cells each connected with 'a source of alternat- J'" spending armature coils of the generator, ashavingiuduoedorgeneratingcoils correspondheroin set forth. ing to and connected with the energizing-coils 4. Thecombination,wiih an alternating-cmof the generator, asset, forth.

'rent generator having a field-magnet wound NIKOLA TESLA. 5 with independent; energizing-coils and an Witnesses:

armature adapted to be rotated within the R031. F. GAYLOBD, field produced by said magnet, of an exciton PARKER. W. PAGE.

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